Do ovarian cysts affect fertility? - Dr. Senai Aksoy

Do ovarian cysts affect fertility?

The ovaries are the reproductive glands located in the woman’s pelvic region on both sides of the uterus. In a woman, the ovaries are two, and their normal size is about the size of a walnut. The ovaries produce the egg and the female hormones called estrogen and progesterone. They are responsible for regulating the menstrual cycle and the formation of pregnancy.

A cyst is a common name given to sac-like structures in the body filled with liquid or semi-solid matter. Cysts can be benign or malignant. There can be many reasons for the formation of ovarian cysts. Many of the ovarian cysts are harmless and show no symptoms. Ovarian cysts are usually detected during a gynecological examination performed by ultrasound.

The question on many women’s minds is whether there is a link between ovarian cysts and fertility. Some ovarian cysts can be associated with low fertility.

Ovarian cysts that can affect your fertility include:

Endometrioma (chocolate cyst)

Endometriomas are cysts caused by endometriosis. This condition is where the tissue usually covers your uterus (endometrium) and settles outside the uterus. These ovarian cysts may be associated with infertility.

Ovarian cysts caused by polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that becomes apparent with many small cysts in your ovaries, irregular menstruation, and high levels of certain hormones. PCOS is associated with irregular ovulation, which can contribute to fertility problems in some women.

As long as it does not expand too much, ovarian cysts of the following type do not affect fertility:

Functional cysts

Functional cysts -such as follicular cysts or corpus luteum cysts- are the most common type of ovarian cyst. Functional cysts are formed during the normal menstrual cycle and do not cause infertility. Functional cysts indicate that the necessary functions that lead to fertility have been performed.

Cystadenoma

They are cysts that originate from the surface tissue of the ovaries. Although they need treatment, they do not affect fertility.

Dermoid cysts

These solid cysts contain tissues such as skin, hair, or teeth instead of fluid. Dermoid cysts are not associated with infertility.

 

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REFERENCES:
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25769434/
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23768623/
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26986742/

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