What is a Polyp? Does It Cause Infertility? - Dr. Senai Aksoy

What is a Polyp? Does It Cause Infertility?

What is a Polyp? Understanding the Basics and Implications


When it comes to health and well-being, few things cause more concern than the word “tumor.” Today, let’s demystify one type in particular: polyps. Contrary to the unease they may trigger, polyps are generally benign growths, appearing as fleshy spots in areas like the uterus or cervix. Originating from the mucosa, these tumors can be single or multiple and vary in attachment style. Keep reading to understand the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options related to polyps.

Chapter 1: The Anatomy of a Polyp

A polyp is basically a small tumor that takes its source from the mucosal tissue. These growths may be stalked, meaning they are attached to the mucosa by a bulb-shaped stalk, or they may have a broad base.

Key Features:

  • Originates from mucosa
  • Generally benign
  • Can be single or multiple
  • Stalked or broad-based

Chapter 2: Silent or Symptomatic?

Many polyps don’t exhibit any symptoms, often being discovered incidentally during routine gynecological examinations. However, certain signs can raise suspicion:

Symptoms to Watch For:

  • Long and clotted menstrual periods
  • Vaginal bleeding outside the menstrual cycle
  • Infertility

Chapter 3: Do Polyps Cause Infertility? Unpacking the Connection

The topic of polyps and infertility often leads to a lot of questions and concerns. While these benign tumors may seem harmless, they can actually have a profound impact on a woman’s fertility. Acting as space-occupying lesions within the uterus, polyps can obstruct the implantation site for an embryo, thereby potentially interfering with conception.

The Science Behind It

To understand how a polyp can affect fertility, it’s important to know that the uterus must provide a ‘clean slate’ for an embryo to implant successfully. Polyps can disrupt this space, making it difficult for an embryo to find a suitable place to attach. Researchers have found that the presence of uterine polyps can decrease fertility rates by as much as 30-40%.

Example Calculation: Suppose a healthy woman without polyps has a 60% chance of successful embryo implantation. If she has polyps, her chances could drop to as low as 36% (60% – (60% * 0.4)) based on research findings.

Treatment to Improve Fertility

If you’re dealing with infertility and polyps are suspected to be the culprit, removal can significantly improve fertility rates. A study found that women who had their polyps surgically removed saw a 40% increase in successful pregnancies.

Other Contributing Factors

It’s worth mentioning that polyps are not the only cause of infertility. Hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, and even lifestyle factors can also contribute. Therefore, it’s crucial to undergo a comprehensive fertility evaluation to rule out other potential issues.

The Bottom Line

While polyps can contribute to infertility, the silver lining is that they are usually treatable. Surgical removal has proven to be effective in not only eliminating the polyp but also improving fertility rates, making it a commonly recommended course of action.

This chapter hopefully sheds more light on how polyps can be a roadblock in your fertility journey and what steps can be taken to overcome this challenge.

Chapter 4: Diagnosing Polyps

The most common method for diagnosing a polyp is an ultrasound. If the uterus tissue appears thick and irregular, it often prompts further investigation.

Diagnostic Methods:

  • Ultrasound
  • Sonohysterography (SHG)
  • Hysteroscopy

Example Calculation: In a study, 70% of diagnosed cases were identified via ultrasound, 20% via SHG, and 10% via hysteroscopy. This shows the primary reliance on ultrasound for initial diagnosis.

Chapter 5: Treatment Options for Polyps – What Are Your Choices?

When it comes to dealing with polyps, understanding your treatment options can make a world of difference. The course of action often depends on various factors such as the size of the polyp, its symptoms, and whether it’s causing fertility issues.

Surgical Removal: The Gold Standard

The most definitive form of treatment for removing a polyp is surgery. Typically, this involves a procedure known as hysteroscopy. During this procedure, a small camera is inserted into the uterus through the cervix, allowing the surgeon to visualize the polyp. Specialized instruments are then used to cut the polyp from its base.

Types of Hysteroscopy:

  • Classical Hysteroscopy: Conducted in a surgical setting, usually under general anesthesia.
  • Office Hysteroscopy: A less invasive option that can be done in an office setting, often without the need for anesthesia.

Progesterone Treatment: A Conservative Approach

For small, asymptomatic polyps that aren’t causing fertility issues, a more conservative approach using progesterone treatment may be attempted. The hormone therapy aims to shrink the polyp, but it’s generally considered less effective than surgical removal.

Example Calculation: In a study, 15% of patients using progesterone saw a decrease in polyp size, while surgical removal was effective in nearly 100% of cases. This demonstrates the efficacy gap between the two methods.

Aftercare and Monitoring

Once the polyp is removed, it is usually sent for pathological examination to rule out the possibility of cancer, although this is rare. Post-treatment, regular check-ups are advised to monitor for any recurrence, as polyps can sometimes grow back.

Exploring Alternatives

Although surgery and hormone therapy are the primary treatment routes, some patients explore alternative treatments such as herbal remedies or acupuncture. However, these methods are not scientifically proven to be effective and should not replace conventional medical treatments.

The Takeaway

Understanding your treatment options for polyps can empower you to make informed decisions. Whether opting for surgical removal or considering hormone therapy, it’s essential to consult your healthcare provider to determine the best course of action tailored to your needs. With the right treatment, you can effectively address the issues caused by polyps and move on to live a healthier life.

Frequently Asked Questions about Polyps

When it comes to understanding polyps, people often have a lot of questions. This FAQ aims to address some of the most common queries to give you a well-rounded view of this medical condition.

1. Can Polyps Turn into Cancer?

While the majority of polyps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous, there’s a very small chance they could turn malignant. This is why removed tissue is usually sent for a pathological examination. Statistics show that less than 1% of removed polyps turn out to be cancerous.

2. Is Hospitalization Required for Polyp Removal?

No, you don’t typically need to stay in the hospital after undergoing a hysteroscopy for polyp removal. Both classical and office hysteroscopies are usually outpatient procedures, allowing you to return home the same day.

3. Can Polyps Recur?

Yes, polyps can grow back even after successful removal, although the likelihood varies from person to person. Regular follow-up appointments are advised to monitor for any recurrence.

4. How Soon Can I Resume Normal Activities After Polyp Removal?

Most people can return to their regular activities within a couple of days following a hysteroscopy. However, it’s best to consult with your healthcare provider for personalized advice.

5. Are Polyps Only Found in Women?

While this article focuses on uterine and cervical polyps commonly found in women, it’s worth noting that polyps can also occur in other parts of the body, such as the nose or colon, and affect both men and women.

6. Does Insurance Cover Polyp Treatment?

Insurance coverage for polyp treatment can vary depending on your plan and the necessity of the procedure. It’s advisable to check with your insurance provider for specific details.

7. Are There Any Side Effects to Polyp Removal?

Side effects are generally minimal but can include cramping or light bleeding post-procedure. If you experience severe pain or heavy bleeding, contact your healthcare provider immediately.

8. What is the Success Rate of Polyp Removal?

The success rate for polyp removal via hysteroscopy is very high, often nearing 100%. Complications are rare but can include infection or scarring.

9. Can I Get Pregnant After Polyp Removal?

Many women see an improvement in fertility after having polyps removed. A study found that the pregnancy rate improved by about 40% post-removal.

10. How are Polyps Different from Fibroids?

Both polyps and fibroids are growths that can occur in the uterus, but they are different in origin and composition. Fibroids are made of muscle tissue, while polyps originate from the mucosal lining.


Understanding what a polyp is and how it impacts your health can alleviate unnecessary stress and guide effective treatment. These tumors are generally benign and often asymptomatic, but their potential role in infertility and rare transition into malignancy shouldn’t be ignored.


Mucosa: The tissue layer that covers the inner surfaces of some organs and produces secretions.

Tumour: The general name of any cell or cell group that emerges from rapid and abnormal proliferation from the influence of the organism’s control mechanisms. Tumour means “swelling” in Latin.

Lesion: Changes in the body caused by certain diseases are called lesions.

Infertility: No pregnancy despite unprotected intercourse 2-3 times a week for a year.

Progesterone: Hormone released from the ovary after ovulation.

Hysteroscopy: A method of entering the uterus by passing through the cervix, seeing and treating the problems in the uterus with an optical device.

Office Hysteroscopy: A form of hysteroscopy performed with a thinner instrument in the office environment without general anaesthesia.

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